The structure of modern wind stations uses various designs of rotors, rotating parts. They have their advantages and disadvantages, different effectiveness and functionality. Currently, there are many developments of autonomous systems that can interact with winds of different speeds and strengths.
Types of wind power plants
According to the type of consumers, autonomous wind generators and installations of network purpose are distinguished. The first provide power to consumers distant from the central electrical networks.
The second, there may be several tens / hundreds of GIGA Turbines, which form a single system and give energy to the general network. The power of autonomous units rarely exceeds 75 kW, while the power of network installations starts from 100 kW.
Depending on the type of construction, wind generators are distinguished:
- with a vertical axis of rotation;
- With a horizontal axis of rotation.
These devices are used for different operating conditions, but most often there are models with a horizontal axis. They work like ordinary weathervanes and have a similar structure. The axis of the rotor rotates parallel to the earth’s surface.
Such units are distinguished by high rates of efficiency (about 40%), simple adjustment of power and a more affordable price, but also characterized by a high level of generated noise and vibrations. In addition, they need to focus on the direction of the wind.
Home wind generator
To install a windmill with a horizontal rotor, you need approximately 120 m of free space and a mast not less than 8 m high
- Wind generators with a vertical axis of rotation have a more compact design; they are less susceptible to environmental factors.
- In devices of this type, the turbine is located perpendicular to the plane of the Earth. Such constructions run even from weak winds and do not depend on the direction of the air flow.
Low noise level (up to 30 dB) makes it possible to install vertical wind turbines on the roofs of buildings. However, there is a significant disadvantage; the efficiency of such generators is only 15%. In addition, they are more expensive than models with a horizontal axis of rotation.
Wind turbine models differ not only in the location of the rotational axis, but also in:
- The number of blades – there are windmills with two and three blades, there are also multi-blade modifications;
- Materials for the manufacture of functional parts – with sailing and rigid blades;
- Screw pitch – adjustable or fixed.
The rotation of multi-blade stationary wind turbines begins even with light wind, but for the operation of two-and three-blade devices need a stronger wind. At the same time, each additional blade in the design creates greater wheel resistance, making it harder to achieve the standard operating speed of the generator.
Depending on the material of manufacture of blades for wind turbines, there may be certain difficulties in the work. Sailing elements are easier to manufacture, and therefore cost less. But if it is necessary to ensure reliable operation of the wind turbine for autonomous power supply, it is necessary to give preference to structures with rigid blades made of metal or reinforced fiberglass.